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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-Q
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023
or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Commission File Number: 001-40829
https://cdn.kscope.io/1789f7c53d773f782fb4100f4327a102-Image_2.jpg
Sterling Check Corp.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware37-1784336
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
6150 Oak Tree Boulevard, Suite 490
Independence, Ohio
44131
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
1 (800) 853-3228
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading
Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange
on which registered
Common stock, $0.01 par valueSTERThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated
1


filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No
The total number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.01 par value per share, as of August 1, 2023 was 96,330,894 (excluding treasury shares of 3,496,098).

2


STERLING CHECK CORP. AND SUBSIDIARIES
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q
FOR THE THREE AND SIX MONTHS ENDED JUNE 30, 2023
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3

Table of Contents
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and we intend that all forward-looking statements that we make will be subject to the safe harbor protections created thereby. You can generally identify forward-looking statements by our use of forward-looking terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “playbook,” “potential,” “predict,” “projection,” “seek,” “should,” “will” or “would,” or the negative thereof or other variations thereon or comparable terminology. In particular, statements that address market trends, and statements regarding our expectations, beliefs, plans, strategies, objectives, prospects or assumptions, or statements regarding future events or performance contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” are forward-looking statements.
We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections. While we believe these expectations, assumptions, estimates and projections are reasonable, such forward-looking statements are only predictions and involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. These and other important factors, including those discussed in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q under the heading “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to differ materially from those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements, or could affect our share price. Some of the factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements include:
changes in economic, political and market conditions, including bank failures and concerns of a potential economic downturn or recession, and the impact of these changes on our clients’ hiring trends;
the sufficiency of our cash to meet our liquidity needs;
the possibility of cyber-attacks, security vulnerabilities and internet disruptions, including breaches of data security and privacy leaks, data loss and business interruptions;
our ability to comply with the extensive United States (“U.S.”) and foreign laws, regulations and policies applicable to our industry, and changes in such laws, regulations and policies;
our compliance with data privacy laws and regulations;
potential liability for failures to provide accurate information to our clients, which may not be covered, or may be only partially covered, by insurance;
the possible effects of negative publicity on our reputation and the value of our brand;
our failure to compete successfully;
our ability to keep pace with changes in technology and to provide timely enhancements to our products and services;
the continued impact of COVID-19 on global markets, economic conditions and the response by governments and third parties;
our ability to cost-effectively attract new clients and retain our existing clients;
our ability to grow our Identity-as-a-Service offerings;
our success in new product introductions and adjacent market penetrations;
our ability to expand into new geographies;
our ability to pursue and integrate strategic mergers and acquisitions;
4

Table of Contents
design defects, errors, failures or delays with our products and services;
systems failures, interruptions, delays in services, catastrophic events and resulting interruptions;
natural or man-made disasters including pandemics and other significant public health emergencies, outbreaks of hostilities or effects of climate change and our ability to deal effectively with damage or disruption caused by the foregoing;
our ability to implement our business strategies profitably;
our ability to retain the services of certain members of our management;
our ability to adequately protect our intellectual property;
our ability to implement, maintain and improve effective internal controls;
our ability to comply with public company requirements in a timely and cost-effective manner, and expense strain on our resources and diversion of our management’s attention resulting from public company compliance requirements; and
the other risks described in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) on March 2, 2023 and in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Given these risks and uncertainties, you are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are not guarantees of future performance and our actual results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity, and the development of the industry in which we operate, may differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. In addition, even if our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity, and events in the industry in which we operate, are consistent with the forward-looking statements contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, they may not be predictive of results or developments in future periods.
Any forward-looking statement that we make in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q speaks only as of the date of such statement. Except as required by law, we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise, or to publicly announce any update or revision to, any of the forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Investors and others should note that we announce material financial and operational information using our investor relations website, press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. Information about Sterling Check Corp. (“Sterling”), our business, and our results of operations may also be announced by posts on our accounts on social media channels, including the following: Instagram, Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our social media channels and on our website is deemed not to be incorporated in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or to be a part of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. The information that we post through these social media channels and on our website may be deemed material. As a result, we encourage investors, the media and others interested in Sterling to monitor these social media channels in addition to following our investor relations website, press releases, SEC filings and public conference calls and webcasts. The list of social media channels we use may be updated from time to time on our investor relations website.

5

Table of Contents
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
STERLING CHECK CORP.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share amounts)December 31,
2022
June 30,
2023
ASSETS
CURRENT ASSETS:
Cash and cash equivalents$103,095 $48,817 
Accounts receivable (net of allowance of $3,200 and $3,194 as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively)
139,579 151,274 
Insurance receivable921 3,421 
Prepaid expenses13,433 11,795 
Other current assets13,654 24,847 
Total current assets270,682 240,154 
Property and equipment, net10,341 7,354 
Goodwill849,609 878,696 
Intangible assets, net241,036 251,031 
Deferred income taxes4,452 4,642 
Operating leases right-of-use asset20,084 7,514 
Other noncurrent assets, net11,050 11,212 
TOTAL ASSETS$1,407,254 $1,400,603 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY 
CURRENT LIABILITIES:  
Accounts payable$38,372 $40,017 
Litigation settlement obligation4,165 6,013 
Accrued expenses67,047 58,118 
Current portion of long-term debt7,500 11,250 
Operating leases liability, current portion3,717 4,069 
Other current liabilities12,939 13,712 
Total current liabilities133,740 133,179 
Long-term debt, net493,990 486,882 
Deferred income taxes23,707 31,531 
Long-term operating leases liability, net of current portion16,835 10,182 
Other liabilities2,336 7,942 
Total liabilities$670,608 $669,716 
COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES (NOTE 13)  
STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY:  
Preferred stock ($0.01 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued or outstanding)
  
Common stock ($0.01 par value; 1,000,000,000 shares authorized; 97,765,120 shares issued and 96,717,883 shares outstanding as of December 31, 2022; 99,810,027 shares issued and 96,758,662 shares outstanding as of June 30, 2023)
76 96 
Additional paid-in capital942,789 960,781 
Common stock held in treasury (1,047,237 and 3,051,365 shares as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively)
(14,859)(40,773)
Accumulated deficit(186,448)(185,534)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss(4,912)(3,683)
Total stockholders’ equity736,646 730,887 
TOTAL LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY$1,407,254 $1,400,603 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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Table of Contents
STERLING CHECK CORP.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME

 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands, except share and per share data)2022202320222023
REVENUES$205,591 $190,384 $397,563 $369,658 
OPERATING EXPENSES:    
Cost of revenues (exclusive of depreciation and amortization below)107,576 102,056 208,532 196,810 
Corporate technology and production systems12,539 11,428 25,091 23,380 
Selling, general and administrative41,886 44,910 84,219 92,361 
Depreciation and amortization19,872 16,120 40,028 31,242 
Impairments and disposals of long-lived assets612 7,039 612 7,145 
Total operating expenses182,485 181,553 358,482 350,938 
OPERATING INCOME 23,106 8,831 39,081 18,720 
OTHER EXPENSE (INCOME):    
Interest expense, net6,619 8,990 12,955 17,598 
Loss (gain) on interest rate swaps32  (296) 
Other income(508)(397)(862)(809)
Total other expense, net6,143 8,593 11,797 16,789 
INCOME BEFORE INCOME TAXES16,963 238 27,284 1,931 
Income tax provision (benefit)5,392 (85)9,477 1,017 
NET INCOME $11,571 $323 $17,807 $914 
Unrealized gain (loss) on hedged transactions, net of tax (benefit) expense of $0, $(1,671), $0 and $144, respectively
 4,751  (408)
Foreign currency translation adjustments, net of tax of $0, $0, $0 and $0, respectively
(3,483)955 (3,200)1,637 
Total other comprehensive (loss) income (3,483)5,706 (3,200)1,229 
COMPREHENSIVE INCOME$8,088 $6,029 $14,607 $2,143 
Net income per share attributable to stockholders    
Basic$0.12 $0.00 $0.19 $0.01 
Diluted$0.12 $0.00 $0.18 $0.01 
Weighted average number of shares outstanding    
Basic94,024,97092,723,90193,996,55392,800,279
Diluted99,344,56394,498,66699,265,66894,924,080
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.


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STERLING CHECK CORP.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(in thousands, except share amounts)Shares OutstandingPar ValueAdditional Paid-In CapitalCommon Shares Held in TreasuryCommon Stock Held in TreasuryAccumulated Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Total
BALANCE as of December 31, 202195,746,975$68 $916,578 107,820$(897)$(206,218)$93 $709,624 
Issuance of common stock1,112— — — — — — 
Common stock issued for exercise of employee stock options8,486— 80 — — — 80 
Issuance of restricted shares, net of forfeitures and vestings533,0955 (5)— — —  
Stock-based compensation— 5,108 — — — 5,108 
Net income— — — 6,236 — 6,236 
Cumulative effect adjustment for adoption of CECL, net of tax of $56
— — — (198)— (198)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— (8)— — 283 275 
BALANCE as of March 31, 202296,289,66873 921,753 107,820(897)(200,180)$376 721,125 
Issuance of common stock1,812— — — — — — 
Common stock issued for exercise of employee stock options76,399— 734 — — — 734 
Issuance of restricted shares, net of forfeitures and vestings42,388— — — — — — 
Stock-based compensation— 6,023 — — — 6,023 
Net income— — — 11,571 — 11,571 
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— (24)— — (3,483)(3,507)
BALANCE as of June 30, 202296,410,267$73 $928,486 107,820$(897)$(188,609)$(3,107)$735,946 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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STERLING CHECK CORP.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (Continued)

(in thousands, except share amounts)Shares OutstandingPar ValueAdditional Paid-In CapitalCommon Shares Held in TreasuryCommon Stock Held in TreasuryAccumulated Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Total
BALANCE as of December 31, 202296,717,883$76 $942,789 1,047,237$(14,859)$(186,448)$(4,912)$736,646 
Issuance of common stock4,567— — — — — — 
Issuance of restricted shares, net of forfeitures and vestings1,894,31019 (19)— — —  
Repurchases of common stock(493,926)— — 493,926(7,712)— — (7,712)
Shares withheld to cover restricted share vestings tax(37,128)— — 37,128(487)— — (487)
Stock-based compensation— 8,043 — — — 8,043 
Net income— — — 591 — 591 
Unrealized loss on hedged transactions, net of tax— — — — (5,159)(5,159)
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — 682 682 
BALANCE as of March 31, 202398,085,70695 950,813 1,578,291(23,058)(185,857)$(9,389)732,604 
Issuance of common stock2,363— — — — — — 
Common stock issued for exercise of employee stock options63,336 — 611 — — — 611 
Issuance of restricted shares, net of forfeitures and vestings80,331 1 (1)— — —  
Repurchases of common stock(1,465,893)1,465,893(17,630)— (17,630)
Shares withheld to cover restricted share vestings tax(7,181)— — 7,181 (85)— — (85)
Stock-based compensation— — 9,358 — — — 9,358 
Net income— — — 323 — 323 
Unrealized gain on hedged transactions, net of tax— — — — 4,751 4,751 
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax— — — — 955 955 
BALANCE as of June 30, 202396,758,662$96 $960,781 3,051,365$(40,773)$(185,534)$(3,683)$730,887 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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STERLING CHECK CORP.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

 Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)20222023
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES  
Net income$17,807 $914 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operations  
Depreciation and amortization40,028 31,242 
Deferred income taxes3,409 188 
Stock-based compensation11,131 17,401 
Impairments and disposals of long-lived assets612 7,145 
Provision for bad debts659 459 
Amortization of financing fees218 539 
Amortization of debt discount959 392 
Deferred rent(146)1,023 
Unrealized translation (gain) loss on investment in foreign subsidiaries(1,220)108 
Changes in fair value of derivatives(4,102) 
Interest rate swap settlements 585 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities
Accounts receivable(36,451)(7,399)
Insurance receivable (2,500)
Prepaid expenses(702)2,251 
Other assets(3,180)(8,650)
Accounts payable14,249 1,314 
Litigation settlement obligation 1,848 
Accrued expenses(8,610)(10,515)
Other liabilities(1,382)(3,447)
Net cash provided by operating activities33,279 32,898 
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES
Purchases of property and equipment(3,266)(593)
Purchases of intangible assets and capitalized software(7,616)(8,589)
Acquisitions, net of cash acquired (48,641)
Proceeds from disposition of property and equipment9 125 
Net cash used in investing activities(10,873)(57,698)
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES
Issuance of common stock814 611 
Repurchases of common stock (25,342)
Payments of initial public offering issuance costs(225) 
Cash paid for tax withholding on vesting of restricted shares (572)
Payments of long-term debt(3,231)(3,750)
Payment of contingent consideration for acquisition(215)(305)
Payments of finance lease obligations(1) 
Net cash used in financing activities(2,858)(29,358)
EFFECT OF EXCHANGE RATE CHANGES ON CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS(1,735)(120)
NET CHANGE IN CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS17,813 (54,278)
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS  
Beginning of period47,998 103,095 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$65,811 $48,817 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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STERLING CHECK CORP.
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS (Continued)

Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)20222023
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION  
Cash paid during the period for  
Interest, net of capitalized amounts of $150 and $189 for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively
$17,225 $20,239 
Income taxes9,531 9,703 
Noncash investing activities
Purchases of property and equipment in accounts payable and accrued expenses$222 $165 
Noncash purchase price of business combinations 4,706

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.


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STERLING CHECK CORP.
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
1.Description of Business
Sterling Check Corp. (the “Company”), a Delaware corporation headquartered in Independence, Ohio, is a global provider of technology-enabled background and identity verification services. The Company provides the foundation of trust and safety its clients need to create effective environments for their most essential resource—people. The Company offers a comprehensive hiring and risk management solution that begins with identity verification, followed by criminal background screening, credential verification, drug and health screening, employee onboarding document processing and ongoing risk monitoring.
As of June 30, 2023, the Company is 51.5% owned by an investment group consisting of entities advised by or affiliated with The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (“Goldman Sachs”) and Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec (“CDPQ” and, together with Goldman Sachs, our “Sponsor”). CDPQ owns its equity interest in the Company indirectly through a limited partnership controlled by Goldman Sachs.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and include accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited; however, in the opinion of management, they reflect all adjustments consisting only of normal recurring adjustments necessary to state fairly the financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods presented in conformity with US GAAP applicable to interim periods. The results of operations for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year or future periods. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2022 and notes thereto included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 2, 2023.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with US GAAP requires management to make estimates and judgments that can affect the reported amount of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. Significant estimates include the impairment of long-lived assets, goodwill impairment, the determination of the fair value of acquired assets and liabilities, collectability of receivables, the valuation of stock-based awards and stock-based compensation and sales and income tax liabilities. The Company also applies an estimated useful life of three years to internally developed software assets. This is based on the historical observed pace of change in the Company’s delivery, technology, and product offerings as well as market competition. The Company believes that the estimates used in the preparation of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements are reasonable; however, actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Segment Information
The Company has one operating and reportable segment. The Company’s chief operating decision maker is its Chief Executive Officer, who reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents of $103.1 million and $48.8 million as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively, include money market instruments with maturities of three months or less. The Company maintained cash outside the U.S. as of December 31, 2022 of $28.0 million with the largest deposits being held in Canada and India, with balances of $9.2 million and $5.1 million, respectively. Cash outside the U.S. was
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$25.5 million as of June 30, 2023, with the largest deposits being held in India and Canada, with balances of $4.8 million and $3.2 million, respectively.
Foreign Currency
Assets and liabilities of operations having non-USD functional currencies are translated at period-end exchange rates, and income statement accounts are translated at weighted average exchange rates for the period. Gains or losses resulting from translating foreign currency financial statements, net of any related tax effects, are reflected in Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income or Loss (“OCI”), a separate component of stockholders’ equity on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets. Gains or losses resulting from foreign currency transactions incurred in currencies other than the local functional currency are included in other income in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The cumulative translation adjustment resulted in losses of $5.6 million and $3.6 million as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Losses
Accounts receivable balances consist of trade receivables that are recorded at the invoiced amount, net of allowances for expected credit losses and for potential sales credits and reserves. Sales credits and reserves were $0.9 million and $0.5 million as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively.

The Company adopted the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 326, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (“CECL”) on January 1, 2022. The adoption of CECL resulted in a $0.3 million cumulative effect adjustment recorded in retained earnings as of January 1, 2022.

CECL requires an entity to utilize an impairment model to estimate its lifetime expected credit losses and record an allowance that, when deducted from the amortized cost basis of a financial asset, presents the net amount expected to be collected on the financial asset.

The Company maintains an allowance for expected credit losses in order to record accounts receivable at their net realizable value. Inherent in the assessment of the allowance for expected credit losses are certain judgments and estimates relating to, among other things, the Company’s customers’ access to capital, customers’ willingness and ability to pay, general economic conditions and the ongoing relationship with customers. Allowances have been recorded for receivables believed to be uncollectible, including amounts for the resolution of potential credit and other collection issues such as disputed invoices. The allowance for expected credit losses is determined by analyzing the Company’s historical write-offs, the current aging of receivables, the financial condition of customers and the general economic climate. Adjustments to the allowance may be required in future periods depending on how such potential issues are resolved or if the financial condition of the Company’s customers were to deteriorate resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments. The Company has not historically had material write-offs due to uncollectible accounts receivable.

Allowances for expected credit losses were $2.3 million and $2.7 million as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively. The following table summarizes changes in the allowance for expected credit losses for the periods presented:

Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)2022202320222023
Balance at beginning of period$1,842 $2,473 $2,949 $2,304 
Cumulative effect of accounting change upon adoption of CECL  254  
Additions351 215 659 459 
Write-offs, net of recoveries(22)(30)(1,691)(108)
Foreign currency translation adjustment(10) (10)3 
Balance at end of period$2,161 $2,658 $2,161 $2,658 
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Corporate Technology and Production Systems
Corporate technology and production systems includes costs related to maintaining the Company’s corporate information technology infrastructure and non-capitalizable costs to develop and maintain its production systems.
The following table sets forth expenses included in each category of corporate technology and production systems for the periods presented:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)2022202320222023
Corporate information technology$6,290 $4,922 $12,413 $10,189 
Development of platform and product initiatives4,115 4,280 8,364 8,694 
Production support and maintenance2,134 2,226 4,314 4,497 
Total production systems6,249 6,506 12,678 13,191 
Corporate technology and production systems$12,539 $11,428 $25,091 $23,380 
Corporate information technology consists of salaries and benefits of personnel (including stock-based compensation expense) supporting internal operations such as information technology support and the maintenance of information security and business continuity functions. Also included are third-party costs including cloud computing costs that support the Company’s corporate internal systems, software licensing and maintenance, telecommunications and other technology infrastructure costs.

Production systems costs consist of non-capitalizable personnel costs including contractor costs incurred for the development of platform and product initiatives and production support and maintenance. Platform and product initiatives facilitate the development of the Company’s technology platform and the launch of new screening products. Production support and maintenance includes costs to support and maintain the technology underlying the Company’s existing screening products and to enhance the ease of use of the Company’s cloud applications. Certain personnel costs related to new products and features are capitalized and amortized to depreciation and amortization.
Included within corporate technology and production systems are non-capitalizable production system and corporate information technology expenses related to Project Ignite, a three-phase strategic investment initiative. Phase one of Project Ignite modernized client and candidate experiences and is complete. Phase two of Project Ignite focused on decommissioning the Company’s on-premises data centers and migrating the Company’s production systems and corporate information technological infrastructure to a managed service provider in the cloud. During the first half of 2021, the Company completed phase two initiatives related to the migration of its production and fulfillment systems to the cloud, and as a result, over 98% of revenue is processed through platforms hosted in the cloud. The Company incurred expenses related to phase two to complete the decommissioning of on-premises data centers for internal corporate technology infrastructure and migration to the cloud which was completed as of September 30, 2022. Phase three of Project Ignite was decommissioning of the platforms purchased over the prior ten years and the migration of the clients to one global platform. This third and final phase, which was completed in the first quarter of 2023, unified clients onto a single global platform. The Company’s core platform now processes approximately 80% of its global revenue.

3.Recent Accounting Standards Updates
The Company qualifies as an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (the “JOBS Act”). The JOBS Act permits extended transition periods for complying with new or revised accounting standards affecting public companies. The Company has elected to use the extended transition periods and is adopting new or revised accounting standards on the FASB‘s non-public company timeline. As such, the Company’s financial statements may not be comparable to financial statements of public entities that comply with new or revised accounting standards on a non-delayed basis.
The Company will cease to be an emerging growth company upon the earliest of (a) the last day of the fiscal year in which it has total annual gross revenues of $1.235 billion or more; (b) the last day of its fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the date of its initial public offering (“IPO”); (c) the date on which it has issued more than $1.0 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (d) the date on which it is
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deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Exchange Act, which would occur as of the last day of a fiscal year in which the market value of its common stock held by non-affiliates equals or exceeds $700 million as of the last business day of the second fiscal quarter of such fiscal year, which threshold was not exceeded as of June 30, 2023.


4.Acquisitions

Socrates and A-Check Acquisitions

On January 4, 2023, the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of Socrates Limited and its affiliates (“Socrates”), a screening company in Latin America, pursuant to a share purchase agreement. The Socrates acquisition expands the Company’s global presence into Latin America to serve the rapidly growing regional hiring needs of both multi-national and local clients. On March 1, 2023, the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of A-Check Global (“A-Check”), a U.S.-based employment screening organization, pursuant to a share purchase agreement. The A-Check acquisition provides the Company access to a high quality, enterprise-focused customer base diversified across verticals including healthcare and telecom. The aggregate purchase price for the acquisitions totaled approximately $65.6 million, was funded with available cash on hand and is subject to certain closing adjustments specified in the share purchase agreements and includes contingent consideration related to the A-Check acquisition of $4.7 million recorded at fair value. The contingent consideration will be determined based on actual future results. As of June 30, 2023, the fair value of the contingent consideration consisted of $2.6 million for an earn-out payable one year after the acquisition based upon revenue retention and a $2.1 million payable throughout the second and third year following the acquisition based on revenue retention and referral revenue. The Company recorded a preliminary allocation of the purchase price to assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values as of their respective purchase dates. Additionally, in connection with the Socrates acquisition, $5.0 million is payable to certain senior employees two years after the acquisition date based on certain retention requirements.

The Company incurred approximately $0.3 million and $2.0 million of transaction expenses related to the acquisitions during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, respectively.

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The preliminary allocation of the purchase price is based on the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the applicable acquisition date. The following table summarizes the consideration paid and the amounts recognized for the assets acquired and liabilities assumed:

Preliminary Purchase Price AllocationAdjusted Purchase Price Allocation
(in thousands)March 31,
2023
Purchase Price AdjustmentsJune 30,
2023
Consideration
Cash$11,935 $— $11,935 
Other current assets
Accounts receivable4,279 (3)4,276 
Other current assets805 2 807 
Property and equipment177 (1)176 
Intangible assets32,141 (1,268)30,873 
Other long-term assets6 — 6 
Total assets acquired$49,343 $(1,270)$48,073 
Accounts payable and accrued expenses1,156 94 1,250 
Other current liabilities1,291 (72)1,219 
Deferred tax liability8,388 (143)8,245 
Other liabilities2 — 2 
Total liabilities assumed$10,837 $(121)$10,716 
Total identifiable net assets38,506 (1,149)37,357 
Goodwill27,352 874 28,226 
Total consideration$65,858 $(275)$65,583 

Goodwill recognized is primarily attributable to assembled workforce and expected synergies and is not tax deductible in future years. Intangible assets acquired consist largely of customer lists in the amount of $28.0 million to be amortized over 15 years. The remaining intangible assets include trade names, developed technology and a non-compete agreement, which will be amortized over two years, eight years, and five years, respectively.

The acquisitions are not material to the Company's financial position as of June 30, 2023 or results of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, and therefore, pro forma operating results and other disclosures for the acquisitions are not presented.

EBI Acquisition

On November 30, 2021, the Company acquired all of the outstanding shares of Employment Background Investigations, Inc. (“EBI”) for a purchase price of $67.8 million, consisting of $66.3 million of cash and $1.5 million of contingent consideration recorded at fair value. As of December 31, 2022, the purchase price was reduced by $0.3 million reflecting the final determination of the post-closing adjustment of the purchase price in accordance with the purchase agreement with EBI, resulting in an adjusted purchase price of $67.5 million. The receivable related to this adjustment was collected in February 2023.

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5.Property and Equipment, Net
(in thousands)December 31,
2022
June 30,
2023
Furniture and fixtures$2,568 $1,411 
Computers and equipment41,084 37,542 
Leasehold improvements6,565 2,073 
 50,217 41,026 
Less: Accumulated depreciation(39,876)(33,672)
Total property and equipment, net$10,341 $7,354 
Depreciation expense on property and equipment was $1.1 million and $0.9 million during the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively, and $2.2 million and $2.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively. Write down of abandoned property and equipment no longer in use totaled $0.6 million during the three and six months ended June 30, 2022. Write down of abandoned property and equipment no longer in use was $1.7 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023.
6.Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill
The changes in the carrying amount of goodwill for the periods presented were as follows:
(in thousands) 
Goodwill as of December 31, 2022
$849,609 
Acquisitions28,226 
Foreign currency translation adjustment861 
Goodwill as of June 30, 2023
$878,696 
Intangible Assets
Intangible assets, net consisted of the following for the periods presented:
 December 31, 2022June 30, 2023
(dollars in thousands)Estimated Useful LivesGross
Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
NetGross
Carrying
Amount
Accumulated
Amortization
Net
Customer lists
7 - 17 years
$506,015 $(340,579)$165,436 $532,853 $(357,449)$175,404 
Trademarks
2 - 16 years
77,198 (37,519)39,679 77,760 (40,597)37,163 
Non-compete agreement
1 - 5 years
3,179 (2,584)595 3,974 (2,708)1,266 
Technology
3 - 8 years
246,220 (216,330)29,890 257,035 (224,935)32,100 
Domain names
2 - 15 years
10,118 (4,682)5,436 10,117 (5,019)5,098 
  $842,730 $(601,694)$241,036 $881,739 $(630,708)$251,031 
Included within technology is $28.1 million and $29.8 million of internal-use software, net of accumulated amortization, as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively. As of June 30, 2023, $5.1 million of technology assets have not yet been put in service.
The Company capitalized $7.6 million of costs to develop internal-use software included in technology during the six months ended June 30, 2022 (consisting of internal costs of $6.1 million and external costs of $1.5 million). The Company capitalized $8.6 million of costs to develop internal-use software included in technology during the six months ended June 30, 2023 (consisting of internal costs of $7.3 million and external costs of $1.3 million).
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For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, the Company recorded no write-down of capitalized software. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company recorded a write-down related to the impairment of capitalized software in the amount of $0.1 million and $0.2 million, respectively.
Amortization expense was $18.7 million and $15.2 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively, and $37.8 million and $29.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively.
Except for the customer lists, which are amortized utilizing an accelerated method, all other intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis, which approximates the pattern in which economic benefits are consumed. Estimated amortization expense as of June 30, 2023 is as follows for each of the next five years:
(in thousands) 
Year Ending December 31, 
Remainder of fiscal year 2023
$32,638 
202449,827 
202540,918 
202631,240 
202724,739 
Thereafter71,669 
 $251,031 
7.Accrued Expenses
Accrued expenses on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets as of the periods presented consisted of the following:
(in thousands)December 31,
2022
June 30,
2023
Accrued compensation$29,835 $19,202 
Accrued cost of revenues15,721 22,660 
Accrued interest3,143 112 
Other accrued expenses18,348 16,144 
Total accrued expenses$67,047 $58,118 
8.Leases
Effective January 1, 2022 using the effective date method, the Company adopted the FASB’s Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, “Leases” (“ASC 842”), which requires the recognition of all leases, including operating leases on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets by recording a right-of-use (“ROU”) asset and related liability, and elected to exclude short-term leases from adoption. The lease liability and ROU asset will be remeasured when there is a change in the lease term (or upon the occurrence of another reassessment trigger). Upon adoption on January 1, 2022, the Company recognized a ROU asset of $23.5 million and a lease liability of $23.8 million.

The Company determines if a contract is a lease or contains a lease at inception. Operating lease liabilities are measured, on each reporting date, based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the remaining lease term. The Company’s leases generally do not provide an implicit rate and, therefore, the Company used the incremental borrowing rate of the former first lien term loan credit agreement of 4.50% for all leases entered into for the period prior to November 29, 2022. Operating lease assets are measured by adjusting the lease liability for lease incentives, initial direct costs incurred and asset impairments. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term with the operating lease asset reduced by the amount of the expense. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate a lease when they are reasonably certain to occur.
The Company leases real estate and equipment for use in its operations. The Company has 17 operating leases with remaining lease terms ranging from 3 months to 67 months as of June 30, 2023. In connection with
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the real estate consolidation program, during the three months ended June 30, 2023, the Company exited additional offices including the Company’s former principal executive office and headquarters in New York. A reduction of the operating leases ROU asset of $5.3 million for impairment charges was recorded in impairments and disposals of long-lived assets in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income. The Company exercised termination options reducing the lease terms on certain operating leases and recorded lease remeasurements to the operating lease liability and corresponding reductions to the operating leases ROU asset in the amount of $4.7 million during the three months ended June 30, 2023. $1.5 million was recorded to de-recognize the operating lease ROU asset related to certain leases in selling, general and administrative expense due to abandonment, during the three months ended June 30, 2023.
The components of lease expense for the periods presented are as follows:
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)2022202320222023
Components of total lease costs
Operating lease expense(1)
$1,302 $2,607 $2,601 $3,986 
Sublease income(216)(343)(288)(565)
Total net lease costs$1,086 $2,264 $2,313 $3,421 
___________________
(1)Includes $1.5 million of lease expense to de-recognize certain operating ROU assets which were abandoned during the three months ended June 30, 2023.

Information related to the Company’s ROU assets and lease liabilities for the period presented is as follows:
(dollars in thousands)June 30, 2023
Operating leases
Operating leases right-of-use asset$7,514 
Operating leases liability, current portion$4,069 
Long-term operating leases liability, net of current portion10,182 
Total operating leases liability$14,251 
Weighted average remaining lease term in years - operating leases3.7
Weighted average discount rate - operating leases5.14 %

Total remaining lease payments under the Company’s operating leases for the period presented are as follows:

(in thousands)June 30, 2023
Remainder of fiscal year 2023
$2,771 
20245,284 
20252,338 
20262,118 
20272,149 
20281,028 
Thereafter85 
Total future minimum lease payments$15,773 
Less: imputed interest(1,522)
Total$14,251 

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9.Debt
On November 29, 2022, Sterling Infosystems, Inc. (the “Borrower”), a Delaware corporation and a subsidiary of the Company, entered into a credit agreement (the “2022 Credit Agreement”) by and among the Borrower, as borrower, Sterling Intermediate Corp., KeyBank National Association, as administrative agent (the “Administrative Agent”), certain guarantors party thereto and the lenders party thereto.
The 2022 Credit Agreement provides for aggregate principal borrowings of $700.0 million, comprised of $300.0 million aggregate principal amount of term loans (the “Term Loans”) and a $400.0 million revolving credit facility (the “Revolving Credit Facility”). The Term Loans and the Revolving Credit Facility mature on November 29, 2027.
The table below sets forth the Company’s long-term debt as presented in the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets for the periods presented:
(in thousands)December 31,
2022
June 30,
2023
Current portion of long-term debt  
Term Loans$7,500 $11,250 
Total current portion of long-term debt$7,500 $11,250 
Long-term debt  
Term Loans, due November 29, 2027 (6.76% and 7.45% at December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively)
292,500 285,000 
Revolving Credit Facility205,494 205,494 
Unamortized discount and debt issuance costs(4,004)(3,612)
Total long-term debt, net$493,990 $486,882 
The estimated fair value of the Company’s 2022 Credit Agreement was $487.1 million and $484.3 million as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023, respectively. These fair values were determined based on quoted prices in markets with similar instruments that are less active (Level 2 inputs as defined below) as an observable price of the 2022 Credit Agreement or similar liabilities is not readily available.
The Company was in compliance with all financial covenants under its credit agreement as of June 30, 2023.
10.Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or that would be paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A three-level fair value hierarchy prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value. An asset or liability’s level in the hierarchy is based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The three levels of inputs used to measure fair value are as follows:
Level 1Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets and liabilities.
Level 2Quoted prices in active markets for similar assets and liabilities, or other inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument.
Level 3Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets and liabilities. This includes certain pricing models, discounted cash flows methodologies and similar techniques that use significant unobservable inputs.
The Company considers the recorded value of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses to approximate the fair value of the respective assets and liabilities as of
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December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2023 based upon the short-term nature of such assets and liabilities (Level 1). See Note 9, “Debt” for discussion of the fair value of the Company’s debt.
Interest rate swaps are measured at fair value on a recurring basis in the Company’s financial statements and are considered Level 2 financial instruments. Interest rate swaps are measured based on quoted prices for similar financial instruments and other observable inputs recognized. The currency forward agreements are typically cash settled in U.S. dollars for their fair value at or close to their settlement date.
As of December 31, 2022, the fair value of contingent consideration related to the November 30, 2021 acquisition of EBI totaled $1.2 million and consisted of a $0.9 million earn-out payable two years after the acquisition based upon revenue retention and $0.3 million remaining payable throughout the year following the acquisition based on customer collections on acquired receivables and is considered a Level 3 financial instrument. As of June 30, 2023, contingent consideration for the earn-out payable related to the acquisition of EBI totaled $0.9 million and is considered a Level 3 financial instrument. As of June 30, 2023, contingent consideration related to the A-Check acquisition completed in 2023 totaled $4.7 million and consisted of $2.6 million for an earn-out payable one year after the acquisition based upon revenue retention and a $2.1 million payable throughout the second and third year following the acquisition based on revenue retention and referral revenue. Contingent consideration related to acquisitions is considered a Level 3 financial instrument.
The following table presents information about the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and their assigned levels within the valuation hierarchy as of December 31, 2022:
(in thousands)Level 1Level 2Level 3
Liabilities   
Contingent consideration - acquisition of EBI$ $ $1,219 
The following table presents information about the Company’s financial assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis and their assigned levels within the valuation hierarchy as of June 30, 2023:

(in thousands)Level 1Level 2Level 3
Assets   
Interest rate swaps$ $2,857 $ 
Liabilities   
Interest rate swaps 3,408  
Contingent consideration - acquisition of EBI  914 
Contingent consideration - acquisition of A-Check  4,706 
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, the Company did not re-measure any financial assets or liabilities at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. There were no transfers between levels during the periods presented.

11.Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities
Interest Rate Swap Hedges
To reduce exposure to variability in expected future cash outflows on variable rate debt attributable to the changes in the applicable interest rates under the 2022 Credit Agreement, the Company entered into interest rate swaps to economically offset a portion of this risk.
For interest rate swap derivatives designated and that qualify as hedges for accounting purposes, the unrealized gain or loss on the derivative is recorded in OCI.
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As of June 30, 2023, the Company had the following outstanding interest rate swap derivatives that were used to hedge its interest rate risks:
ProductNumber of InstrumentsEffective DateMaturity Date
Notional(1)
Interest Rate Swaps4February 28, 2023November 29, 2027
$300.0 million USD
__________

(1)The notional value steps down from $300.0 million to $150.0 million on February 27, 2026.
All financial derivative instruments are carried at their fair value on the balance sheet. The table below presents the fair value of the Company’s derivative financial instruments as well as their classification on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets as of the dates presented:
 Asset Derivatives
As of December 31, 2022
As of June 30, 2023
(in thousands)Balance Sheet LocationFair ValueBalance Sheet LocationFair Value
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:  
Interest rate swapsOther current assets$ Other current assets$2,857 

 Liability Derivatives
As of December 31, 2022
As of June 30, 2023
(in thousands)Balance Sheet LocationFair ValueBalance Sheet LocationFair Value
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:    
Interest rate swapsOther liabilities Other liabilities$3,408 
The tables below present the effect of cash flow hedge accounting on accumulated OCI for the periods presented:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Three Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)2022202320222023
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:Amount of Gain or (Loss) Recognized in OCI on DerivativeLocation of Gain or (Loss) Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into IncomeAmount of Gain or (Loss) Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income
Interest rate swaps$ $6,975 Interest expense$ $552 
Six Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)2022202320222023
Derivatives designated as hedging instruments:Amount of Gain or (Loss) Recognized in OCI on DerivativeLocation of Gain or (Loss) Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into IncomeAmount of Gain or (Loss) Reclassified from Accumulated OCI into Income
Interest rate swaps$ $98 Interest expense$ $649 
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The tables below present the effect of the Company’s cash flow hedge accounting on the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the periods presented:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
20222023
(in thousands)Interest ExpenseInterest Expense
Total amounts of income and expense line items in which the effects of cash flow hedges are recorded$6,619 $8,990 
Gain or (loss) on cash flow hedging relationships  
Interest rate swaps:  
Amount of gain or (loss) reclassified from accumulated OCI into income$ $552 
Six Months Ended
June 30,
20222023
(in thousands)Interest ExpenseInterest Expense
Total amounts of income and expense line items in which the effects of cash flow hedges are recorded$12,955 $17,598 
Gain or (loss) on cash flow hedging relationships
Interest rate swaps:
Amount of gain or (loss) reclassified from accumulated OCI into income$ 649
Amounts reported in accumulated OCI related to derivatives will be reclassified to interest expense as interest payments are made on the Company's variable-rate debt. Based on current interest rates, during the next twelve months, the Company estimates that an additional $2.9 million net gain will be reclassified from accumulated OCI as a decrease to interest expense. No gain or loss was reclassified from accumulated OCI into earnings as a result of forecasted transactions that failed to occur during the periods presented.

Non-designated Derivatives
Derivatives not designated as hedges are not speculative and are used to manage the Company’s exposure to interest rate movements and other identified risks but do not meet the strict hedge accounting requirements and/or the Company has not elected to apply hedge accounting.
Changes in the fair value of derivatives not designated in hedging relationships are recorded directly in earnings.
As of June 30, 2023, the Company did not have any outstanding derivatives not designated as a hedge in qualifying hedging relationships.
The table below presents the effect of the Company’s derivative financial instruments that are not designated as hedging instruments in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the periods presented:
  Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands) 2022202320222023
Derivatives Not Designated as Hedging InstrumentsLocation of Loss (Gain) Recognized in Income on DerivativesAmount of Loss (Gain) Recognized in Income on Derivatives
Interest rate swapsLoss (gain) on interest rate swaps$32 $ $(296)$ 
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12.    Income Taxes
The computation of the provision for or benefit from income taxes for interim periods is determined by applying the estimated annual effective tax rate to year-to-date income before tax and adjusting for discrete tax items recorded in the period, if any.
The Company recorded a tax provision of $5.4 million and a benefit of $0.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively, which resulted in an effective tax rate of 31.8% and (35.7)%, respectively. The Company recorded a tax provision of $9.5 million and $1.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively, which resulted in an effective tax rate of 34.7% and 52.7%, respectively. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, the effective rate differs from the statutory rate mainly due to a jurisdictional mix of earnings and permanent items.
13.    Commitments and Contingencies
Litigation

The Company is party to both class actions and individual actions in the ordinary course of business. The matters typically allege violations of the Fair Credit Reporting Act (“FCRA”), as well as other claims. In addition, from time to time, the Company receives inquiries from regulatory bodies regarding its business. The Company accrues for the cost of resolving matters where it can be determined that a loss is both estimable and probable. Certain matters are in litigation and an estimate of the outcome and potential losses, if any, cannot be determined. Certain of these matters are covered by the Company’s insurance policies, subject to policy terms, including retentions. The Company does not believe that the resolution of current matters will result in a material adverse effect on the financial position, results of operations, or cash flows of the Company.
As of December 31, 2022, the Company recorded a legal settlement obligation of $4.2 million and an offsetting insurance receivable of $0.9 million for the settlement of legal matters. As of June 30, 2023, the Company recorded a legal settlement obligation of $6.0 million and an offsetting insurance receivable of $3.4 million for the settlement of legal matters.
Net legal settlement expense recorded in selling, general and administrative expense in the unaudited consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income for the three months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023 totaled $0.1 million and less than $0.1 million, respectively, and $0.3 million and $0.1 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022 and 2023, respectively.
14.    Equity
Under the Company’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, a total of 1,100,000,000 shares of all classes of stock are authorized, divided as follows:
(i)1,000,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share (“common stock”); and
(ii)100,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, par value $0.01 per share (“preferred stock”).
Each share of common stock is entitled to one vote on all matters on which holders of common stock are entitled to vote generally. Holders of common stock are entitled to be paid ratably any dividends as may be declared by the Board of Directors (in its sole discretion), subject to any preferential dividend rights of outstanding preferred stock (if any). No dividends have been declared or paid on the Company’s common stock through June 30, 2023.
The Board of Directors is authorized to direct the issuance of the undesignated preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the designation of such series, the powers (including voting powers), preferences and relative, participating, optional and other special rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of such series of preferred stock and the number of shares of such series.
On November 23, 2022, the Company’s board of directors authorized the repurchase of up to $100.0 million of the Company’s shares of common stock over a period through December 31, 2024. The share repurchase program is being executed on a discretionary basis through open market repurchases, private transactions, or other transactions, including through block trades and Rule 10b-18 and Rule 10b5-1 trading plans. The Company is not obligated to repurchase any specific number of shares, and the timing and amount
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of any share repurchases will be subject to several factors including share price, trading volume, market conditions and capital allocation priorities. The share repurchase program may be suspended, terminated or modified without notice at any time. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, the Company repurchased 1,465,893 shares of its common stock for $17.6 million and 1,959,819 shares of its common stock for $25.3 million, respectively, inclusive of commissions and taxes.

On June 7, 2023, the Company entered into an Underwriting Agreement with Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC and J.P. Morgan Securities LLC as representatives of the several underwriters named therein (the “Underwriters”) and the selling stockholders (the “Selling Stockholders”), relating to the sale by the Selling Stockholders of 8,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.01 per share, of the Company (the “Secondary Public Offering”). In connection with the Secondary Public Offering, the Selling Stockholders granted the Underwriters a 30-day option to purchase up to an additional 1,200,000 shares of common stock of the Company, of which 1,145,486 shares were purchased. The Company did not sell any shares in the Secondary Public Offering and did not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares being sold by the Selling Stockholders in the Secondary Public Offering. In addition, the Company entered into an agreement with Broad Street Principal Investments, L.L.C. (“BSPI”), one of the Selling Stockholders, dated June 5, 2023, pursuant to which the Company repurchased from BSPI an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of common stock of the Company for a total of $11.7 million pursuant to the Company’s share repurchase program at a price per share equal to the price paid by the Underwriters in the Secondary Public Offering.
15.    Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-based compensation expense is recognized in cost of revenues, corporate technology and production systems, and selling, general and administrative expense in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income as follows:
 Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
(in thousands)2022202320222023
Stock-based compensation expense    
Cost of revenues$411 $394 $824 $822 
Corporate technology and production systems499 605 1,030 1,217 
Selling, general and administrative5,113 8,359 9,277 15,362 
Total stock-based compensation expense$6,023 $9,358 $11,131 $17,401 
Prior to the IPO, all share-based awards were issued to employees under the Company’s 2015 Long-Term Equity Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”). Upon the adoption of the Sterling Check Corp. 2021 Omnibus Incentive Plan (the “2021 Equity Plan”) on August 4, 2021 and as of September 22, 2021, all newly granted share-based awards have been issued under the 2021 Equity Plan.
As of June 30, 2023, the Company had approximately $100.7 million of unrecognized pre-tax non-cash stock-based compensation expense related to awards granted under the 2021 Equity Plan, consisting of approximately $31.8 million related to non-qualified stock options (“NQSOs”), $67.9 million related to restricted stock, and approximately $1.0 million related to restricted stock units (“RSUs”), all of which the Company expects to recognize over a weighted average period of 2.61 years.

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2015 Long-Term Equity Incentive Plan

The table below provides a summary of service-based vesting options (“SVOs”) and performance-based stock options (“PSOs”) currently outstanding under the 2015 Plan for the six months ended June 30, 2023:
Outstanding SVOsOutstanding PSOs
Number of
Shares
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life
(years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Number of
Shares
Weighted
Average
Exercise
Price
Weighted
Average
Remaining
Contractual
Life
(years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
(in thousands, except shares and per share amounts)
Balances as of December 31, 2022
6,208,274 $9.59 5.00$36,513 3,081,855 $10.05 3.32$16,699 
Granted    
Forfeited / Cancelled